A Gerund is a verb when it acts as a noun; gerunds can act as the subject or object of a main verb.
EG: john enjoys fishing.

Gerunds are used after prepositions, but not usually after 'to'. The gerund looks identical to the present participle, which is used after the auxiliary verb 'to be', but are not the same as they do not function as main verbs.

Gerunds are used after certain words and expressions, as is the infinitive, so it is useful to try to learn which form an adjective, etc., takes.

Here is a review of gerunds and how to form them.

*A gerund is derived from a verb by adding the suffix -ing. The result is still a verb, and it exhibits ordinary verbal properties, such as taking objects and adverbs. Example: In football, deliberately tripping an opponent is a foul. Here the verb trip occurs in its gerund form tripping, but this tripping is still a verb: it takes the adverb deliberately and the object an opponent. However, the entire phrase deliberately tripping an opponent, because of the gerund within it, now functions as a noun phrase, in this case as the subject of the sentence. So, a gerund is still a verb, but the phrase built around it is nominal, not verbal. "Very different is a verbal noun constructed with - ing. Though derived from a verb, a verbal noun isstrictly a noun, and it exhibits nominal properties . . .."

*Gerunds are sometimes called "verbal nouns".

*Present participles and gerunds look similar as words, and they also look similar as phrases. Again, it is the -ing verbal form that causes this problem. To clearly distinguish these, we need to consider their grammatical functions. A present participle functions as a non-finite form of a verb phrase, after verbs of motion and position; it can be an adverb complement after these verbs; it can qualify/modify as an adjective does. In contrast, gerunds like nouns have naming roles and can occupy the place of nouns in many of their grammatical functions. Unlike nouns, they do not name persons, places, things, or events; they name actions, states, and behaviors.

*There are a few spelling rules that you need to know in order to form gerunds
correctly. The spelling of a gerund depends on the vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and consonants (b, c, d, f, etc.) at the end of the verb:

a. If there is more than one consonant, just add ING: think + ing = thinking

b. If there is more than one vowel, just add ING: beat + ing = beating

c. If there is one vowel and one consonant, and the syllable is stressed, double the consonant and add ING: hit + t + ing = hitting

d. If there are one or more consonants and E, remove the E and add ING: take + ing = taking

e. In most other cases, just add ING: study + ing studying, see + ing = seeing

Examples :
1. Roni has problem with spelling.
2. A developing country needs support from the established ones.
3. By taking it seriously, you only make the problem gets bigger.
4. It is a stepping stone for him to take an English course.
5. The remaining refugees are sheltered in the nearest mosques.
6. Jakarta is a home of skyscrapper buildings.
7. He is a caring man.
8. I hate waiting.
9. She is good at cooking.
10. Can you stop complaining?


Generally (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun, an individual or individuals or thing or things (the pronoun's antecedent) whose identity is made clear earlier in the text. For instance, we are bewildered by writers who claim something like

- They say that eating beef is bad for you.

They is a pronoun referring to someone, but who are they? Cows? whom do they represent? Sloppy use of pronouns is unfair.

Not all pronouns will refer to an antecedent, however.

- Everyone here earns over a thousand dollars a day.

The word "everyone" has no antecedent.

A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which", "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.


A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

A. Subjective Personal Pronouns

A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. The subjective personal pronouns are "I," "you," "she," "he," "it," "we," "you," "they."

B. Objective Personal Pronouns

An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb,compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase.

The objective personal pronouns are: "me," "you," "her," "him," "it," "us," "you," and "them."

C. Possessive Personal Pronouns

A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs."

Note that possessive personal pronouns are very similar to possessive adjectives like "my," "her," and "their."


A demonstrative pronoun points to and
identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

The demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." "This" and "that" are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and "these" and "those" are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.

Note that the demonstrative pronouns are identical to demonstrative adjectives, though, obviously, you use them differently. It is also important to note that "that" can also be used as a relative pronoun.


An interrogative pronoun is used to ask
questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever").

Note that either "which" or "what" can also be used as an interrogative adjective, and that "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.


You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

You can use the relative pronouns "who" and "whoever" to refer to the subject of a clause or sentence, and "whom" and "whomever" to refer to the objects of a verb, a verbal or a preposition.


An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.

Examples :
1. I don't like dancing.
2. She is crazy.
3. The book over there is mine.
4. He loves her the way I do.
5. Nobody can help you but yourself.
6. Who dares to steal my money?
7. Whoever broke the display will have to pay.
8. The man whose car is stolen is my friend
9. I dedicate this song to my lover.
10. Which book is mine?


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